In Russia, pipeline transport is one of the key components of the national welfare. Almost half of the federal budget is provided by revenues from the extraction and export of hydrocarbons, the main way of delivery of which are pipelines.
Russia was a pioneer in the design and construction of complex oil and gas pumping systems back in the days of the empire, and pipeline transport reached its peak in the 1960s and 1980s, when the Soviet Union began actively developing Siberian reserves and built such export systems as the Druzhba Pipeline and the gas mains, going through the whole country and the states of Eastern Europe. In the 1990s, pipeline transport practically did not develop, a new stage began only in the noughties. The Blue Stream gas pipeline, the Baltic Pipeline System (BPS), the Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean (ESPO) system have become a real breakthrough for the oil and gas industry and the entire Russian economy.
Today the prospects for pipeline transport are reliable. At least for the next few years. Transneft, which manages the oil pipeline system, adopted a development program until 2020. In its framework, major oil pipelines have been completed: the Polar region - Purpe (length 485 km), Kuyumba - Taishet (700 km). It is also planned to build several large trunk oil pipelines, oil product pipelines and pipeline systems. In addition, the expansion of the ESPO is expected. By the end of 2019, the capacity of the ESPO system will reach 80 million tons. The company plans to further develop its investment program.
There are ambitious plans for the near future from Gazprom. They are associated with the development of capacities to supply gas to China. The construction of the Power of Siberia gas pipeline is continuing. It will become a common gas transportation system for the Irkutsk and Yakutia gas production centers and will transport gas from these centers through Khabarovsk to Vladivostok and further to the PRC. At the first stage, the Yakutia-Khabarovsk-Vladivostok gas pipeline will be built, at the second stage the Irkutsk center will be connected by a gas pipeline to the Yakutia center. The capacity of the Power of Siberia will be 61 billion cubic meters of gas per year. The agreement concluded in May 2014 with China provides for an annual supply of 38 billion cubic meters over 30 years.
In December last year, Gazprom's board of directors approved the investment program for 2018. The total volume of development of investments will amount to 1 trillion 278.830 billion rubles, including 798.428 billion rubles for capital construction projects.
Another important project for Gazprom is the Turkish Stream system. Earlier it was assumed that it would continue with the South Stream gas pipeline, which would go under the Black Sea to Bulgaria and further to the countries of Southern Europe. But due to the fact that Russia was unable to withdraw the project from the action of the Third Energy Package of the European Union, which stipulates the separation of the functions of gas production and transportation and the mandatory reservation of capacities in the pipe for "foreign" gas, Gazprom decided to redirect the gas stream to Turkey at the end of last year. There, on the border with Greece, it is planned to build a gas hub, from where the blue fuel will be distributed among the consuming countries. At the same time, the Russian company is not going to renew the contract for gas transit with Ukraine, which expires in 2019. This means that 30 billion cubic meters will go to Turkey (this is the expected capacity of the Turkish Stream), and another 40 billion will be redistributed in other systems: Yamal - Europe (goes through Belarus) and Nord Stream, laid on the bottom of the Baltic Sea
There are projects for a more distant future. So, the idea of building a gas pipeline from Sakhalin to Japan is actively discussed. The parties throw the ball and give the initiative, but it is obvious that in the conditions when Japan stopped its nuclear power plants, the country needs a constant flow of gas, and preferably cheaper than the LNG that the country is now buying. The construction of a gas pipeline to South Korea is not less interesting. Here the main obstacle is the route, because the most effective way is through North Korea. But it is “an extremely unreliable partner” and no one wants to risk multibillion-dollar investments. In addition, Gazprom is expanding its domestic gas transmission systems, implementing a gasification program in the regions. The gas company and Transneft, together with the extractive enterprises, will also have to actively build pipelines connecting new fields and production centers, including on the shelf of the northern seas.
Such a "large group of plans" allows us to look optimistically at the future to other branches of Russian industry, especially the pipe workers. The ChTPZ Group and other Russian pipe companies have mastered the most complex products and are able to meet the needs of both Gazprom and Transneft. So, on December 25, 2014, Gazprom and the leading Russian pipe manufacturers (the ChTPZ Group, OMK, Severstal, TMK) signed programs for scientific and technical cooperation. The programs foresee, for example, the development of the production of pipes with increased cold resistance, with thermal insulation, with high-tight threads, as well as pipes for offshore gas production and for operation in corrosive environments. In general, the work will last for the years ahead.